Artificial Intelligence - What Every African Youths Needs to Know.
Article Compiled By Ogundimu Samuel Olajide
Grab your pop-corn... This is another exciting and simple ride.
Our world, as we perceive it now, has always metamorphosed from a crude to a civilized settings.. Early this week, it was widely reported that a chinese news station now uses Artificial Intelligence ( hereafter, written as AI) for it's news reporting, it is been fed data and it reports news 24\7 without a break, a feat which humans are yet to achieve.
AI has always been with us, going down memory lane, it would be recorded that early ancestors made use of AI in one way or another. The Greek first recorded it use in the Iliad when the goddess thetis, and her son achilles visited the workshop of hephaestus, the god of smiths. Hephaestus was helped by female servants which were made of gold, but possesses mind, hearts with intelligence, vocal chords and even strength. This was recorded by Homer the historian.
What is AI? AI is the development of computer systems that are able to perform tasks that would require human intelligence. It can be seen as computing different models of human behavior in components so as to make them behave intelligently, simply explained: we say humans are intelligent, hence, what humans do have to be intelligent. We also thought about the fact that there are ways to do things intelligently without or with little human intervention. We also believe that humans behave rationally beside of their intelligence, hence, if we are to build anything similar to human intelligence, such thing has to behave rationally. Simple?? Isn't it?.
Now let's continue. Due to our thoughts, we embark on a logical experiment in the scientific field. First, we start the experiments on humans, and record how they behave systematically, and now we transmit our findings to machines and see how they will behave in accordance to human logic. After this, we brought up a research called cognitive neuroscience (check meaning in footnote), this research strategy helps us with experiment that reveals something about what goes on inside people's head, then we build models (which we know as machines/computers) that mirror the same kind of processes that goes on in people's head... Fantastic??? Isn't it??? ...
So how can we define AI in a simple term? We would say AI is a branch of science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion, this is realized by borrowing characteristics from human knowledge, and applying them in step by step processes in a computer friendly way. Don't tell me you don't know what AI means now.... Are we rocking??? Now let's go.
History Of Artificial Intelligence - AI have always been with us. Early man have always invented and developed ways and tools to make life easier...they made the wheel, lever, piston e.t.c., until the period of industrial revolution and after ( see notes about industrial revolution in footnotes). People like socrates and Daedullus have mentioned it in their writing, then as early as 1206, Ebru Izz Ben Rezzaz, a pioneer of cybernetic science has made water-operated auntomated controlling machines. In 1672, Gottfried Leibnitz developed the binary counting system that formed the basis of today's computer. However the year 1884 is very important in the history of AI, this is the year Charles Babbage worked on a machine that will exhibit human behaviour. In the year 1936, Alan Turin created a universal calculator now known as the Turin calculator, this calculator proved that if logical processes are been broken down into well defined individual steps, then such steps can be replicated in a machine, this he understands to be the physical vehicle of AI. In 1950, turin created a test to see if machines are intelligent, guess what? They passed the test. However, it was in 1956 that the term AI was coined by J. Macarthy that made a proposal for the tests of turin ( the LISP- List Processing Language) to be researched upon and adequately confirmed, it was this research that birthed the chess playing machine that defeated the then chess champion. Since then, AI has been developed systematically. In the year 1974, the internet begun, by 1981, the first personal computer was created by IBM, In the year 2010, Asimo, a human robot was made to act, using mind power.... Impressive right? Just read slowly like me and you would get all the gist... Now let's continue
Where can AI be found... Quite simply, AI can be used in
* self driving cars
* human vs computer games (virtual reality)
* many more
Some of the agents of AI are Robots, Web shopping programs, smartphones, traffic control system, computers, Cards, Biometric identifications (in camera, doors, finger prints, voice patterns and lot more.
The goals of AI include helping machines in reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects or mind.
The AI field is largely related to other fields of study such as computer science! Linguistic, philosophy, mathematics, info engineering, psychology and many more.
In todays world, AI techniques are largely relied upon to solve many challenges in technology computing, software engineering, operational research amidst many more, examples of this are the development of essential chips that are required in the computing and mind-setting of smartphones.
All this seems like rocket science right? Don't worry, let's break it down further.
The application of AI-
In Healthcare- in 2016, a research was conducted in california in which AI helped determine the correct dose of drugs to give organ patients, AI has seen to help save $16 billion by assisting doctors, infact microsoft AI helped doctor discover the treatments for cancer, and now working on fighting myeloid leukemia, a fatal cancer. Infact AI has been used to perform surgeries.
Automotives- as of 2017, 30 companies have started creating driverless cars through the invention of AI, infact, driverless trucks are in their testing phase, this is by developing a coherent mapping for directions, the programming is sponsored by AI, the leading developer for driverless car is Elon Musk, the owner of Tesla motors, Space X and Solar City.
Finance - financial institutions are now using AI systems to organize operations, maintain book keeping, invest in stock and even detects fraud, in august 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competitions. It has also helped for online trading and pricing.
Video Games - it is used to generate dynamic purposeful behavior in non player characters. (see the game Left for Dead for illustrations)
Military - spending on robotics in 2010 hit a record $7.5 billion , in 2017, Vladimir Putin, the president of russia commented "whoever becomes a leader in AI will become the ruler of the world"
Other fields are Audit, Advertising, Art, amidst others.
We actually have two types of AI. One is the Weak AI which responds to specific situations but cannot think for themselves, while the strong AI is able to think and act like humans, there are no examples of strong AI, they are only depicted in movies.
AI is important as it reduces casualities in Wars, Dangerous Workspace, Car accidents, Natural disasters. It also makes tasks easier, cleaning, shopping, transportation and communication just got easier.
The side fall of AI is that it can't actually think, it is only modelled to act intelligently. Without human interference in it's early stage, it cannot compute itself, hence AI will always require human intervention and this is what downplays it. AI inventions can also go out of hand, it has caused dangerous incidents as deaths, hence it is seen as not trustworthy for total reliance due to malfunction. however, the future is in AI, and exploration and exploitation of AI is needed in the world for further civilization. It will always be developed.
As researched and written by Ogundimu Samuel Olajide
( See Footnotes, references in the comments sections)